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OLG Köln: Fehlende Unterhaltszahlungen können Auswirkungen auf gemeinsames Sorgerecht haben

Zahlt ein Antragsteller seit der Geburt eines gemeinsamen Kindes keinerlei Unterhaltszahlungen, so kann dies auch Bedeutung in einer Entscheidung über das gemeinsame Sorgerecht haben.

1. Sachverhalt

Der Antragsteller hat einen Antrag auf Übertragung der elterlichen Sorge hinsichtlich des Kindes (geboren im Jahre 2005) gestellt. Die Parteien waren nicht verheiratet. Das Amtsgericht hatte die Übertragung des Sorgerechts abgelehnt. Dagegen hat der Antragssteller Beschwerde eingelegt.

2. Rechtlicher Hintergrund

Im Jahr 2010 sah die Rechtslage in Deutschland so aus, dass verheiratete Mütter bei der Geburt des Kindes kraft Gesetzes das alleinige Sorgerecht (§ 1626 a Abs. 2 BGB) hatten, soweit und solange das gemeinsame Sorgerecht nicht durch die Eltern gemeinsam begründet wird. Ein gemeinsames Sorgerecht war nur mit Zustimmung der Kindesmutter möglich. Durch die Entscheidung des Euro-päischen Gerichtshofes für Menschenrechte in Strassburg vom 03.12.2009 sowie der anschließenden Entscheidung des Bundesverfassungsgerichts vom 21.07.2010 bestand nunmehr die Möglichkeit, das Kindesväter das gemeinsame Sorgerecht einfordern. Dies sollte dann möglich sein, wenn das gemeinsame Sorgerecht nicht dem Kindeswohl widerspricht.

3. Beschluss des OLG Köln (Az.: 4 WF 184/11)

Das Oberlandesgericht (OLG) hat die Beschwerde zurückgewiesen. Der Antragsteller habe seit der Geburt des Kindes keinerlei Unterhaltszahlungen geleistet. Darüber hinaus habe er sich im Rahmen der Umgangskontakte nicht als zuverlässig erwiesen. Er habe nicht den Eindruck hinterlassen, sich verlässlich um sein Kind zu kümmern und für dieses Verantwortung zu tragen. Nach Auskunft des Jugendamtes habe der Antragsteller zuletzt Kontakt mit seinem Sohn gehabt, als dieser dreieinhalb Jahre alt war. Dieser Kontakt liege damit über zwei Jahre zurück. Zudem habe sich der Antragsteller beim Jugendamt trotz mehrmaliger Aufforderungen nicht gemeldet. Zu einem Termin sei er nicht erschienen. Dabei vertrat das Oberlandesgericht insbesondere auch die Auffassung, dass Unterhaltszahlungen Auswirkungen auf das Sorgerecht haben kann. Hierzu führt das OLG wie folgt aus:

Im Hinblick auf das Beschwerdevorbringen ist nochmals darauf hinzuweisen, dass der Umstand, dass der Antragsteller seit der Geburt des Kindes bisher keinerlei Unterhaltszahlungen geleistet hat, durchaus auch Bedeutung für die Beurteilung des Sorgerechts hat. Denn der Antragsteller, der 1985 geboren ist, hat keine Erklärung dazu abgegeben, warum er als junger Mann seit 2005, also über sechs Jahre nicht in der Lage gewesen sein soll, jedenfalls zeitweise eine Tätigkeit aufzunehmen und dementsprechend – zumindestens teilweise – Unterhalb für sein Kind zu leisten. Der Antragsteller hat hierzu  nichts dargelegt; es ist auch nicht aus den Akten ersichtlich, warum er seiner Unterhaltsverpflichtung, die vorrangig gegenüber sonstigen Zahlungsverpflichtungen besteht, nicht nachgekommen ist.

4. Fazit

Es ist ein Irrglaube anzunehmen, dass aufgrund der Entscheidungen des Bundesverfassungsgerichts sowie des Europäischen Gerichtshofs für Menschenrechte das Kindesväter automatisch bei Antrag das gemeinsame Sorgerecht für nichtehelichen Kinder erhalten. Vielmehr muss die Übertragung auch dem Kindeswohl entsprechen. Im vorliegenden Fall hat sich der Antragsteller in mehrfacher Hinsicht wohl disqualifiziert. Er hat sich im Rahmen des Umgangsrechts und im Rahmen des Kontakts zum Jugendamt sowie bei entsprechenden Terminen als unzuverlässig erwiesen. Darüber hinaus besteht derzeit nur ein begleiteter Umgangskontakt. Außerdem habe er zweieinhalb Jahre keinen Kontakt zu dem Sohn gehabt.

Ob man dagegen aus dem Umstand, dass jemand seinen Unterhalt nicht gezahlt hat, schließen kann, dass dies nicht dem Kindeswohl entspricht, das gemeinsame Sorgerecht zu begründen, erscheint mir zweifelhaft. Ein Schritt weitergedacht: das Umgangsrecht muss dem Kindsewohl entsprechen. Kann man das Umgangsrecht verweigern, wenn jemand den Unterhalt nicht oder nicht regelmäßig zahlt?

Da der Antragsteller im Verfahren keine Gründe nennen konnte, warum er über sechs Jahre lang nicht in der Lage gewesen ist, Unterhalt zu zahlen, hat dies beim OLG zumindestens einen sehr negativen Eindruck hinterlassen. Kombiniert mit dnm fehlenden Umgangskontakten, der Unzuverlässigkeit beim Jugendamt und der Nichtzahlung des Unterhalts hat das Amtsgericht hier angenommen, dass es nicht dem Kindeswohl entspräche, wenn der Antragsteller das gemeinsame Sorgerecht erhielt.

 5. Quelle
Die Entscheidung ist auf http://www.jm.nrw.de/ses/nrwesearch.php nachzulesen.

Für Fragen zu diesem oder anderen Themen stehen wir Ihnen gerne zur Verfügung. Einen Beratungstermin können Sie gerne hier vereinbaren.

Rechtsanwalt Klaus Wille
und Fachanwalt für Familienrecht
Breite Str. 147 – 151
50667 Köln
Tel.: 0221/ 272 4745
Fax: 0221/ 272 4747
Email: anwalt(at)anwalt-wille.de
http://www.anwalt-wille.de
http://www.unterhalt24.com



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